That varies from company to company.
Most German stock corporations pay once a year a dividend. This is determined at the Annual General Meeting and is usually paid out on this day. The board of directors makes a dividend proposal, which the shareholders usually also agree to.
In America, on the other hand, it is common practice for dividends to be paid once in a quarter. Thus, the shareholder receives a dividend four times a year.
There are also corporations that have paid a monthly dividend for several decades. This is a useful option for investors who want to build up a regular additional income.
And last but not least, there are also companies that reinvest their profits completely . In the technology sector, for example, the surplus money is not distributed to the shareholders, but reinvested in research and development.